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Wasserstoff für die deutsche und europäische Wirtschaft

von Hubert Hunscheidt

„In der Tat werden Deutschland und Europa große Mengen Wasserstoff importieren müssen, um den Bedarf der hiesigen Wirtschaft zu decken. Auch kleinere und mittlere Unternehmen werden sich fragen müssen, wie sie an ihren Wasserstoff kommen und wie dieser auf dem Werksgelände ankommen wird.“ Das betont Carsten Gelhard, Leiter des HydroHub, der Wasserstoffinitiative von Unternehmen der TÜV NORD GROUP. Wo wird also der Wasserstoff herkommen und auf welchem Weg erreicht er Europa?

Exportländer

Mit Blick auf die globalen Handelsrouten kristallisieren sich bei Wasserstoff einige Schwerpunkte heraus:

Für den Transport über weite Strecken wird der Seeweg die einzige Option bleiben – das gilt beispielsweise für Herstellerländer mit Exportüberschuss wie Kanada, Chile, Australien oder auch Saudi-Arabien. Chile hat großes Potenzial: Es herrschen optimale Bedingungen für erneuerbare Energien, die sich in niedrigen Strompreisen niederschlagen. Sobald Wasserstoff in Chile zu wettbewerbsfähigen Konditionen hergestellt werden kann, oder sein Import in den Bedarfsländern bis dahin subventioniert würde, könnte die Produktion in Chile sehr schnell hochgefahren werden.

Für kürzere Strecken kommen für den Transport Landwege oder Pipelines in Betracht: Dänemark, das Wasserstoff hauptsächlich aus Windenergie und Elektrolyse erzeugen wird, sieht den Transport des Wasserstoffs via Pipeline als beste Alternative; ebenso Norwegen. In Spanien und Marokko wiederum gilt Elektrolyse in Kombination mit Photovoltaik als aussichtsreich – bei überschaubaren Transportstrecken.

Trägersubstanzen

Unterschiedliche Trägersubstanzen stehen für den effizienten Import zur Verfügung, erläutert Carsten Gelhard weiter: „Die Trägermaterialien mit dem größten Potenzial sind neben Ammoniak auch Methanol, flüssige organische Wasserstoffträger – die sogenannten LOHC – oder flüssiger Wasserstoff, LH2.“ Saudi-Arabien zum Beispiel fokussiere sich für den Transport auf Ammoniak als Trägermaterial, das auch vermehrt als nachhaltiger Schiffstreibstoff diskutiert werde.

Innerhalb der europäischen Binnenmärkte sollen zur Kosteneffizienz soweit wie möglich bestehende Speicher- und Transport-Infrastrukturen umgewidmet werden, betont Gelhard: „H2-Readiness in allen aktuellen Planungen zu berücksichtigen, ist deshalb entscheidend wichtig – beispielsweise auch bei der Wasserstoff- und Ammoniaktauglichkeit neuer LNG-Terminals.“

Quelle: TÜV NORD AG / Foto: Jürgen Acker pixelio.de

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