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Straßengüterverkehr hat sich seit 1991 verdoppelt

von Hubert Hunscheidt

Dieser Zuwachs ging vor allem zu Lasten der umweltfreundlicheren Verkehrsmittel Bahn und Binnenschiff. Rollten 1991 noch rund 246 Milliarden Tonnenkilometer (tkm) über deutsche Straßen, waren es 2019 vorläufigen Zahlen zufolge rund 499 Milliarden Tonnenkilometer – ein Anstieg von 103 Prozent. Tonnenkilometer sind die zurückgelegten Kilometer multipliziert mit der beförderten Gütermenge in Tonnen. Wenn also 5 Tonnen 5 Kilometer transportiert werden, entspricht das 25 tkm. Der Güterverkehr auf der Schiene stieg im selben Zeitraum nur um 62 Prozent an. Rohrfernleitungen (ab 1996 wurde hier nur Rohöl erfasst) nahmen lediglich 12 Prozent zu. Der Güterverkehr via Binnenschiff sank sogar um 9,1 Prozent und schwankte zuletzt stärker. Laut Umweltbundesamt stehen die Schwankungen in engem Zusammenhang mit Niedrigwasser, insbesondere im Jahr 2018. Ein Teil der Verkehrsleistung hatte sich demzufolge auch noch bis ins Jahr 2019 auf die Schiene verlagert.

Lastkraftwagen verursachen rund 10 Prozent der globalen CO₂-Emissionen. Zum Vergleich: Pkw sind für 7,4 Prozent der Emissionen verantwortlich. Um die Emissionen zu senken, müssten mehr Güter über die Schiene transportiert werden und Lkw mit emissionsärmeren Antrieben wie Elektromotoren oder E-Fuels ausgestattet werden. E-Fuels sind CO₂-neutrale, flüssige Kraft- und Brennstoffe, die synthetisch mit Ökostrom hergestellt werden. Wie diese Statista-Grafik zeigt, sind insbesondere Elektro-Lkw auf absehbare Zeit noch deutlich teurer in der Anschaffung als Lkw mit Dieselmotor bzw. mit synthetischem Treibstoff angetriebene Lkw.

Quelle und Grafik: Statista GmbH / Foto: marketSTEEL

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