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Steigender CO2-Preis gefährdet Investitionsplanung der Industrie

von Hubert Hunscheidt

Die zuletzt noch einmal erheblich gestiegenen Zertifikatspreise verschlechtern zunehmend die Wettbewerbsbedingungen für die deutsche energieintensive Industrie. Zugleich droht durch hohe Zertifikatskosten ein gefährlicher Liquiditätsentzug, der auch Investitionen in klimafreundliche Technologien behindert.

Lagen die Preise in den vergangenen Jahren meistens zwischen 20 und 30 Euro je Tonne, stiegen sie seit Januar dieses Jahres immer weiter an und erreichten im Dezember bis zu 90 Euro. VIK-Hauptgeschäftsführer Christian Seyfert: „Es existiert ein fragiles Gleichgewicht zwischen Zertifikatspreisen und Investitionsanreizen. Die Bundesregierung muss gemeinsam mit der Europäischen Kommission dafür Sorge tragen, dass Marktentwicklungen im Emissionshandel den Transformationsprozess nicht torpedieren. Weitere Verschärfungen im Handelssystem führen zu wettbewerbsverzerrenden Kostenbelastungen, die ohne die technologischen Voraussetzungen für eine beschleunigte Emissionsreduktion die Wettbewerbssituation verschlechtern.“ Seyfert betont daher, dass es regelmäßiger Evaluierung der Marktentwicklung bedürfe und eine Anpassung der ökonomischen Rahmenbedingungen durch das zur Verfügung stehende Instrumentarium nötig ist.

Zurzeit sind viele CO2-arme Technologien nicht wirtschaftlich. Um Investitionen in diese anzuregen, bedarf es zielgerichteter Fördermechanismen, die das mittelfristige Preisrisiko bei Emissionszertifikaten mindern, dem sich die Industrie ausgesetzt sieht. Zum Erhalt der internationalen Wettbewerbsfähigkeit ist das unbedingt nötig, um Deutschland und die Europäische Union als technologische Vorreiter im Weltmarkt zu etablieren. Solange in anderen Weltregionen konventionelle, CO2-intensive Produktionsprozesse subventioniert werden, kann Carbon Leakage nur durch technologischen Vorsprung verhindert werden. Maßnahmen, die jedoch allein Importe in die Europäische Union adressieren, sind für eine exportorientierte Wirtschaft, insbesondere für die deutsche Industrie, nicht hilfreich.

Seyfert betont, dass der VIK und seine Mitglieder die Transformation hin zu einer globalen, klimaneutralen Gesellschaft unterstützen und hierfür im bestehenden EU-ETS das zentrale Klimaschutzinstrument für die Industrie sehen: „Als mengenbasiertes System stellt das EU-ETS sicher, dass die Reduktion von Treibhausgasemissionen der europäischen Industrie und Energiewirtschaft und die Investition in klimaneutrale Technologien effizient erfolgen. Die aktuelle Entwicklung der Zertifikats- und in Folge auch der Strompreise stellt für die Transformation der Industrie aber ein erhebliches Risiko dar. Diese immer schnellere Preisrallye wird die Industrie nicht sehr lange durchhalten, statt Investitionen in klimafreundliche Technologien wird sie Arbeitsplatzverluste bringen, daher sollten EU und Bundesregierung der Entwicklung größte Aufmerksamkeit widmen.“

Quelle: VIK Verband der Industriellen Energie- und Kraftwirtschaft e.V. / Foto: Fotolia

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