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Fachkräftemangel bedroht deutschen Wohlstand

von Hubert Hunscheidt

Nach Destatis-Zahlen wählten im 2021 rund 307.000 Studierende im ersten Fachsemester ein MINT-Fach. Das waren 6,5 Prozent weniger als im Vorjahr. Gleichzeitig fiel auch der Anteil derjenigen, die sich im ersten Fachsemester für MINT-Fächer entschieden auf knapp 38 Prozent. Im Jahr 2015 hatte er noch 40,5 Prozent betragen – bis heute Höchststand.

Aktuell fehlen 140.000 Experten in akademischen MINT-Berufen

Dabei herrscht in Deutschland gerade bei Naturwissenschaftlern Bedarf: Nach Berechnungen des IW fehlen aktuell rund 140.000 MINT-Experten. Die Gesamtlücke in den MINT-Berufen – inklusive Facharbeitern, Meister und Technikern – liegt sogar bei 308.000 Stellen. Besonders groß sind die Engpässe in der IT, es fehlen aber auch Elektrotechnik-, Maschinenbau- und Bauingenieure.

Dabei gäbe es für Schulabsolventen klare Anreize, ein IT- oder ingenieurwissenschaftliches Studium aufzunehmen. Nach IW-Berechnungen verdienen bereits junge Vollzeitbeschäftigte im Alter unter 45 Jahren in akademischen MINT-Berufen im Schnitt 5.313 Euro und damit fast 200 Euro mehr als der Medianlohn in allen akademischen Berufen. Gerade wer ein Ingenieur- oder Informatik-Studium abgeschlossen hat, verdient überdurchschnittlich gut.

Bedarfe an MINT-Experten werden weiter steigen

IW-Befragungen zeigen, dass die Bedarfe an MINT-Experten in den kommenden Jahren weiter zunehmen werden. Gerade Digitalisierung und Klimawandel zwingen die Unternehmen zu neuen Innovationen. Rund 77 Prozent der Erwerbstätigen des dafür entscheidenden Tätigkeitsfelds Forschung und Entwicklung haben eine MINT-Qualifikation. Darüber hinaus müssen in den kommenden Jahren immer mehr MINT-Akademiker ersetzt werden, die in Rente gehen.

„Die sinkenden Studierendenzahlen in den MINT-Berufen gefährden die Innovationskraft in Deutschland und damit Wettbewerbsfähigkeit und nachhaltigen Wohlstand“ sagt IW-Ökonom Axel Plünnecke. „Für eine Trend-Umkehr brauchen wir dringend mehr junge Menschen, die sich für MINT-Fächer begeistern. Die Politik muss Berufs- und Studienorientierung stärken.“

Quelle: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Köln e.V. / Foto: marketSTEEL

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