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Corona kostete bisher 350 Milliarden Euro Wertschöpfung

von Hubert Hunscheidt

Seit zwei Jahren leidet die deutsche Wirtschaft unter den Folgen der Corona-Pandemie. Zum Jahrestag zieht eine neue Studie des Instituts der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW) Bilanz: 350 Milliarden Euro an Wirtschaftsleistung sind bisher verloren gegangen. Im ersten Quartal dieses Jahres kostet Corona möglicherweise weitere 50 Milliarden Euro. Die Erholung wird Jahre dauern.

Die Ausfälle der Wirtschaft belaufen sich seit Anfang der Pandemie auf rund 350 Milliarden Euro, wie neue IW-Berechnungen zeigen. In den vergangenen zwei Jahren gaben die Deutschen 270 Milliarden Euro weniger für ihren Konsum aus – das sind rund 3.000 Euro pro Kopf. Außerdem investierten Unternehmen rund 60 Milliarden Euro weniger. Staatsausgaben und Exporte fingen die Wirtschaft im zweiten Jahr zumindest teilweise auf.

Ein Auf und Ab

Zu Beginn der Pandemie führten die Lockdown-Maßnahmen zu Problemen bei Produktionsprozessen und störten Lieferungen im In- und Ausland. Hinzu kamen Kosten durch eingeschränkte Konsummöglichkeiten und vorsichtige Kunden. Im zweiten Quartal 2020 sackte das reale BIP verglichen mit dem Vorjahr um elf Prozent ab. Im weiteren Verlauf der Pandemie sorgten zwischenzeitlich gesunkene Infektionszahlen immer wieder für Hoffnung auf eine dauerhafte Erholung. Die wurde jedoch durch erneute Infektionswellen getrübt. Im zweiten Corona-Jahr waren Probleme bei Lieferketten entscheidend: Fehlende Bauteile machten besonders der Automobilindustrie zu schaffen, die Produktionslücke in der gesamten Industrie wuchs wieder auf siebeneinhalb Prozent an.

Kräftiges Wachstum benötigt

Obwohl Staatsausgaben und die Erholung im Außenhandel die Verluste abschwächten, wird es voraussichtlich auch in den kommenden Monaten zu Einbußen kommen. Allein im ersten Quartal 2022 könnte sich die Corona-Bilanz um weitere 50 Milliarden Euro verschlechtern. Die neue Omikron-Variante gibt allerdings auch Grund zur Hoffnung, meint IW-Ökonom Michael Grömling: „Sollten wir in diesem Jahr in die endemische Phase eintreten, dürfte es wieder bergauf gehen. In den nächsten Jahren braucht es ein kräftiges Wachstum, um die bislang aufgelaufenen Einbußen wieder wettzumachen.“

Hier geht es für Interessierte zur Studie.

Quelle: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Köln e.V. / Foto: Fotolia

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