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Anpassung des Klimaschutzgesetzes war überhastet

von Hubert Hunscheidt

Das schreibt Karen Pittel, Leiterin des ifo Zentrums für Energie, Klima und Ressourcen in einem Aufsatz für den ifo Schnelldienst. „Morgen wird die EU ihr Fit-for-55 Paket veröffentlichen. Daraufhin könnte eine erneute Überarbeitung des Klimaschutzgesetzes nötig sein“, sagt Pittel. Erst im Juni 2021 hat die Politik das Gesetz nach dem Urteil des Bundesverfassungsgerichts reformiert.

„Die Reform des Klimaschutzgesetzes war überhastet. Deutschland hätte die europäische Klima- und Energiepolitik stärker in den Fokus nehmen müssen“, sagt Pittel. Derzeit wird die Einführung eines zweiten effektiven Emissionshandels für Wärme und Verkehr auf EU-Ebene diskutiert. „Sollte er in Kraft treten, macht die Festlegung auf jahresgenaue Emissionsziele für einzelne Wirtschaftssektoren in Deutschland wenig Sinn, da sich sektorale Emissionsminderungen dann als Ergebnis von Angebot und Nachfrage auf europäischer Ebene ergeben“, heißt es in dem Aufsatz.

Die Sektorenziele seien zudem nur wenig zielführend für nachhaltigen Klimaschutz. Erreicht ein Wirtschaftssektor das Ziel in einem Jahr nicht, muss die Politik innerhalb von drei Monaten durch Sofortmaßnahmen gegensteuern. Dies führe zu Planungsunsicherheit bei Unternehmen und Investoren, insbesondere wenn Minderungsziele aufgrund kurzfristiger äußerer Einflüsse nicht erreicht wurden. „Im Fall einer weiteren Revision des Gesetzes sollte der Gesetzgeber die Sektorenziele komplett abschaffen oder wenigstens durch Korridore für sektorale Emissionsminderungen ersetzen“, schreibt Pittel.

Die Bundespolitik sollte sich auf deutscher wie europäischer Ebene für eine Stärkung der Wirksamkeit von CO2-Preissignalen einsetzen. Dies umfasst eine grundlegende Reform der Energiesteuern ebenso wie Emissionsminderungen im Stromsektor durch den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien.

Quelle: ifo Institut / Foto: marketSTEEL

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