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Energie in Eisenform - Wasserstoff sicher und effizient transportieren

von Hubert Hunscheidt

Mittels Sonnenenergie hergestellter Wasserstoff, eine chemische Reaktion und der Transport in Metallform führen zu einem nachhaltigen Kreislauf. Zusammen mit Partnern aus Clausthal und Bremen sowie assoziierten Industriepartnern will das Team ein Konzept für dessen Umsetzung im industriellen Maßstab erarbeiten.

Wasserstoff (H2) ist hochentzündlich, leicht flüchtig und versprödet viele Materialien. Diese Kombination macht den Transport bisher aufwendig und wenig effizient. Eine Möglichkeit ist es, Wasserstoff als Ammoniak* zu lagern und zu transportieren. Ein Team um Dr.-Ing. Rüdiger Deike, UDE-Professor für Metallurgie und Umformtechnik, verfolgt hingegen einen Ansatz, dessen Kreislauf beispielsweise so aussähe:

An einem Ort mit hoher Sonneneinstrahlung und gut verfügbaren Wasserressourcen, z.B. auf dem afrikanischen Kontinent, in Australien oder Südamerika, liefern Photovoltaikanlagen elektrische Energie. Diese wird genutzt, um Wasser in Sauerstoff und H2 aufzuspalten. Nun kommt nur noch Eisenerz (Eisenoxid) für die anschließende chemische Reaktion hinzu: Hier entsteht Eisen durch die Reduktion mit Wasserstoff und wird in Form von Minibriketts oder kugelförmigen Pellets ohne Umweltrisiko verschifft. Am Bestimmungsort wird die umgekehrte Reaktion initiiert, um wieder Wasserstoff und Eisenoxid zu erhalten.

Obwohl der grundlegende Eisen-Dampf-Prozess schon lange bekannt ist, ist noch viel ungeklärt: Die Ingenieur:innen wollen grundsätzlich geeignete Eisenlegierungen identifizieren, die möglichst beliebig oft und ohne Verlust die chemischen Reaktionen durchlaufen können. „Um die effizienteste Kombination zu entwickeln – aus den besten Materialsystemen und der darauf angepassten Verfahrenstechnik“, erklärt Projektkoordinator Deike.

Das Projekt „Me2H2 Eisen-Dampf-Prozess“ umfasst in großen Teilen Grundlagenforschung. Dennoch soll am Ende ein Konzept stehen für die Prozess- und Anlagentechnik im großen, industriellen Maßstab.

Das Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) fördert das soeben gestartete Projekt innerhalb des Ideenwettbewerbs „Wasserstoffrepublik Deutschland“ für drei Jahre mit einer Gesamtsumme von 1,3 Mio. Euro. Neben den Ingenieur:innen der UDE sind die Technische Universität Clausthal sowie das Leibniz-Institut für Werkstofforientierte Technologien (IWT) Bremen beteiligt. Assoziierte Partner sind die thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG und die SMS group GmbH.

Bildtext: Mikroskopische Aufnahme von Eisenoxid.

Quelle: Universität Duisburg-Essen (UDE) / Foto: UDE/Silke Rink

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